When the young Charles Darwin set out on his voyage on H.M.S. Beagle he carried with him a recently published volume called “Principle of Geology: An attempt to explain the former changes of the earth’s surface by reference to causes now in operation” by Charles Lyell and devoured it eagerly.
Charles Lyell was the man who did for the field of geology what Darwin would later do for the field of biology. Before Lyell, most prevalent theories of geology saw the earth as shaped by cataclysmic singular events in the past based on creationist accounts in the Bible. Lyell argued that all the varied features on the earth’s surface are produced by the gradual operation of immutable natural laws over a long period of time and that those laws can be induced from observations of current geological phenomena–thus established the foundations of modern geology.
Later in his life, Darwin would say: “I really think my books come half out of Lyell’s brain. I see through his eyes.”
Click here for a brief biography of Sir Charles Lyell from Encyclopedia Britannica (1910-1911).
Click here for a brief account of Lyell’s “Principle of Geology.”